The medical school interview trail is filled with great learning opportunities and interesting interactions. Generally, it’s a positive experience overall. Most of your interviews are conversations rather than interrogations, and you will often end up having a pleasant conversation with the physician tasked with interviewing you. So rest assured that much of the experience will be positive.
With that said, some components of the interview process can certainly be challenging. One challenging component of medical school interviews are ethical questions, which can trip up some applicants.
You may encounter questions regarding challenging scenarios that propose an ethical dilemma. You will be asked to state how you would proceed and why. Many of these questions can be difficult and, at times, nerve-wracking. What is the best way to approach them?
Read our comprehensive Medical School Interview Guide for a complete overview of the interview process.
The 4 Principles of Bioethics
The first step in developing a framework by which to approach these questions is to know the four basic principles of bioethics. Most, if not all, medical ethical dilemmas can be systematically evaluated based on one or more of these principles. By understanding them, you can usually reason your way to an appropriate answer.
Not all ethical questions have an exact right answer, but by providing sound reasoning based on ethical principles, you can demonstrate a solid foundation of knowledge to guide such decisions.
Here are the principles to know.
1 | Autonomy
Any individual who has the capacity to make their own decisions should be able to do so. This is one of the most basic and useful guiding principles of bioethics. The challenge lies in scenarios where it is difficult to discern whether or not the patient has the capacity to make decisions.
In the case of unemancipated minors (people under the age of 18 and still under the supervision or parents of guardians), generally, their parents make decisions on their behalf. An exception is when there is clear harm being done to the minor by the guardian.
In scenarios when a patient has a medical or psychiatric condition that alters their mental status, they need to demonstrate that they understand the risks and benefits of any decision they are making in order to have capacity. If able to do so, they can opt for or against medical care autonomously.
2 | Nonmaleficence
This is a simple tenet to understand. It is the responsibility of every physician to first do no harm to the patient. This means not providing or withholding medical care if either decision could potentially harm the patient in question.
3 | Beneficence
The counterpart of nonmaleficence, this is the duty to help patients and provide medical care that will be of benefit to them.
4 | Justice
This principle applies to providing each individual what they are due. It also deals with the issue of appropriately distributing societal resources evenly.
In general, all individuals should be treated equally, irrespective of socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity, or other demographic factors. For example, justice is particularly relevant to organ donation. Individuals on the transplant list are ranked based on their need (severity of disease) as well as how much they “deserve” the organ. For example, to obtain a liver transplant, a patient must be abstinent from alcohol for at least six months.
Examples of Medical Ethics Interview Questions
A respected friend and coworker has been exhibiting erratic behavior at work lately, which is puzzling to you. One day, you find the individual with alcohol on their breath while at work. How would you deal with this situation?
A patient suffers a traumatic injury and is rushed to the hospital. They are bleeding rapidly and will require blood transfusion. Prior to the blood being ordered, a nurse uncovers documentation from the patient that indicates they are a Jehovah’s Witness, meaning they would refuse any blood transfusion if conscious. You are worried the patient may die if not transfused. What do you do?
How to Approach Medical Ethics Questions
Most patient-centered questions can be broken down into one of the above four principles to guide an answer. Outside of these scenarios, follow these basic tips to guide your approach.
1 | Err on the Side of Caution with Your Answers
This means to always side with the more moral, scrupulous approach to a scenario. If there is morally questionable behavior indicated in the question, always opt to speak out and stand up against such behavior if feasible.
2 | Evaluate Urgency vs. Emergency
In medical emergencies when the patient’s wishes are not known, the physician should act in the patient’s best interest by providing the appropriate standard of medical care. If the situation is not an emergency and some time is available, the provider should seek out a spouse or family member who is designated as a decision maker and ask what their evaluation of the patient’s wishes would be.
3 | Use Bioethics Principles in Order of Importance
In general, use the four principles of bioethics in the following order of importance in any given ethical dilemma:
patient autonomy > nonmaleficence > beneficence > justice.
In the medical school interview, avoid making evaluations of social justice and allocation of resources if possible, as this can predispose you to potential prejudiced decision-making. Focus on providing every individual with the same high-quality, compassionate care.
Prepare and Plan Ahead
As with any other challenging task, it is beneficial to have a framework of reasoning off of which to work and deal with a multitude of ethical scenarios. The principles of bioethics, along with the strategies shared in this post, provide this.
For additional guidance, read our strategies for other medical school application questions.
- How to Answer the Interview Tell Me About Yourself Question
- How to Answer the “What Are Your Greatest Weaknesses?” Question
If you need any further assistance with medical school interview preparation, contact Med School Insiders to learn more about our interview preparation services. Our advisers can provide you with specific advice and questions, and they can perform mock interviews.