Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
|Sensorimotor||0-2 years old||Object permanence is the ability to understand something is there even though the child cannot see it. For example, the child pushing aside a box that is put in front of a desired toy.|
|Preoperational||2-7 years old||Centration is only being able to think of a situation in one way. For example, understanding that “mommy” is a mother, but unable to see that “mommy” is also a wife, daughter, or sister.|
Egocentrism, a form of centration, is the inability to see a situation from another person's point of view.
|Concrete Operational||7-11 years old||Conservation: The classic conservation task is done by showing a child two cups of water that are of equal size and are equally filled. Then, the adult will pour the water from one glass into a taller/skinnier glass. If the child says the taller glass contains more water, they have not developed conservation.|
Abstract thinking: Individuals may be able to solve problems such as “Fred has 72 watermelons but gives away 15 – how many does Fred have now?”. These are concrete problems that can be solved by using concrete analogies. However, abstract thinking is not developed until the individual can think about hypothetical scenarios and grasp/respond to abstract thoughts.
|Formal Operational||12+ years old||No further considerable cognitive development once this stage is reached. The individual can think in abstract ways and solve complex problems.|